Effective Workforce Planning in TVET Sector

Date: March 6-10, 20223 /
Program Type: In-Country Program /

Program Contents

To achieve the objectives set forth, the following strategies will be employed in a consultative nature:

Presentations and workshop on the following:

Theme Papers

  • Theme Paper 1: Challenges faced by TVET institutions in the modern employment landscape
  • Theme Paper 2: Addressing the Challenges through Innovative Learning and Assessment Strategies
  • Theme Paper 3: Current Workforce Trend in TVET
  • Theme Paper 4: Criteria and Strategies to meet the Workforce in TVET
  • Theme Paper 5: Sharing of Malaysian Design Planning in TVET Workforce-current practice
  • Theme Paper 6: An Overview Workforce Demand and Implementation in Philippines
  • Theme Paper 7: Workforce Designing Tools at TESDA, Philippines

Group Work Activities (GWA)

  • GWA 1: Preparing Suitable Tools for TVET Workforce Planning
  • GWA 2: Developing Workforce Plan
  • GWA 3: Preparing Action Plan for Effective Workforce Planning in TVET
  • GWA 4: Presentation of the Action Plan

At the end of the course, participants should be able to:

  • Determine the future needs of the workforce in the TVET sector
  • Understand the challenges in planning the action of producing effective workforce in TVET sector
  • Plan the strategies to materialize the needs of TVET workforce, and
  • Develop an action plan to prepare the future demand of the workforce in the TVET sector

21st Century Skills for TVET

Date: February 20-24, 20223 /
Program Type: In-Country Program /

Program Contents

To achieve the objectives set forth, the following strategies will be employed in a consultative nature:

Theme Papers & Presentations on the following:

  • Theme Paper 1: TVET Institutes Management for Global Competitiveness
  • Theme Paper 2: 21st Century Skills and IR 4.0 for Global Competitiveness & Innovation in the TVET
  • Theme Paper 3: Developing a Curriculum Structure Integrating 21st Century Skills
  • Theme Paper 4: TVET Digitization for Global Competitiveness
  • Theme Paper 5: IR 4.0 to TVET 4.0
  • Theme Paper 6: Excellence of Leadership for Change Management through PDCA Cycle in TVET

Workshops & Activities

  • Workshop 1: Understanding and Analyzing TVET Institute Image Building with 21st Century Environment through SWOT analysis.
  • Workshop 2: Creating Competency-Based Training (CBT) by integrating 21st Century Skills.
  • Workshop 3: 21st Century Skills Delivery in Real-Time Classroom.

Seminar on “21st Century Skills for Sustainable TVET”

  • Session 1: TVET with 21st Century Skills & the VUCA World
  • Session 2: Green TVET & The National Economy
  • Session 3: TVET Digital Management in 2030
  • Session 4: Open Forum


The participants are expected to:

  • Understand the concept of 21st Century Skills and IR 4.0
  • Discuss the importance of 21st Century Skills for TVET
  • Gain knowledge, experience, and skills on 21st Century Skills in developing and designing the curriculum for TVET students
  • Integrate the 21st Century Skills for TVET into the teaching and learning management of TVET
  • Encourage and develop the 21st Century Skills to be suitable for employability in the future.
  • Be familiar with the vocational pedagogy to deliver 21st Century Skills and IR 4.0
  • Develop curriculum framework incorporating 21st Century Skills and IR 4.0
  • Be familiar with ICT & digital technology to integrate 21st Century Skills and IR 4.0 in TVET

Expected Outcomes

The Participants are expected to gain more knowledge experience of 21st Century Skills for TVET in developing and designing the curriculum for TVET students as the 21st Century skills are tools that can be universally applied to enhance ways of thinking, learning, working and living in the world. The skills include critical thinking/reasoning, creativity/creative thinking, problem solving, metacognition, collaboration, communication and global citizenship.

21st Century Integrated Learning Experience in Higher Learning Institutions

Date: February 15, 2023 /
Program Type: Webinar /

9:30am Afghanistan | 10:00am Maldives, Pakistan | 10:30am India, Sri Lanka | 10:45am Nepal | 11:00am Bangladesh, Bhutan | 11:30am Myanmar | 12:00nn Thailand | 1:00pm Malaysia, Mongolia, Philippines, Singapore | 3:00pm Papua New Guinea | 5:00pm Fiji


Stress among students has been a topic of extensive research for many years. Many studies were able to recognize the different stressors that the higher learning institutions (HLIs) students experience. Ross, Niebling, and Heckert (1999) determined forty sources of stress among students. The top five sources of stress are associated with changes in sleeping habits, lack of vacations or breaks, changes in eating habits, increased workload, and new responsibilities. Schneider (2002) found that HLI students' perceived workload stipulated in the curriculum, competitive peers, and difficulty of the curriculum content cause emotional stress. It is common for HLI students to feel anxious due to the workload of their studies and their ability to meet those demands (Talaei, et. al., 2008). Another work suggests that heavy workload, a lot of time used to complete assignments, lack of sleep, difficult and inflexible curriculum, competitive classmates, and performance pressure (Schneider, 2002; Murphy, et. al., 2009). A few other works show that the common causes of stress in academic performance are associated with examinations and grades, fear of failing, lack of time between tests, and criticism at work (Sekhon, et. al., 2015; Murphy, et. al., 2009; Muirhead & Locker, 2007). In a study conducted in the Philippines, it was found that college students experienced immense pressure and their concerns were about earning good grades, too many projects, homework and incoming exams, time constraints and maintaining good relationships with teachers. (Hicks & Heastie, 2008).

The most frequently reported factors contributing to stress among students in other studies were: academic workload (Burnett & Fanshawe, 1997; Jones, 1992; Verma, et al., 2002) examinations (Lee & Larson, 2000; Verma, et al., 2002), performance in academic work, academic difficulties (Agolla & Ongori, 2009; Johnson, 2009), self-expectations and parents’ expectation (Ang & Huan, 2006a; Ang, et al., 2009; Misra & Castillo, 2004). Researchers in China and Vietnam who have conducted studies using the Educational Stress Scale for Adolescents (ESSA) revealed that academic stress was found to be related to five factors: pressure from the study, workload, worry about grades, self-expectation and despondency (Sun, Dunne, Hou, et al., 2012; Thai, 2010).

It is apparent based on these studies that one of the most important sources of stress for students is in their academic life. In order to prepare for their careers, students in HLI must adapt to a variety of psychological changes in addition to dealing with academic and social requirements. Thus, academicians and authorities need to be wary of this situation and intervene for the well-being of these students. Academicians, especially, could assist by changing the method of teaching and learning in order to reduce the workload of students. One documented approach to lessen the students’ academic workloads is by introducing Integrated Learning Experience (ILE)

The ILE approach helps students get a unified view of reality, and enhances their capability to acquire real-life skills. ILE does this by linking learning content between and among subject areas. There is integration when pupils are able to connect what they are learning in one subject area to a related content in another subject area. John Dewey claimed that learning could be more meaningful if content areas are blended for curriculum and instruction. The use of unifying themes and real-life activities could lead to more relevant learning (Dewey, 1938; New, 1992). The quality of learning outcomes improves as pupils are able to integrate information across disciplines instead of acquiring them in isolation. The intention of the teachers, the learning outcome of the subject, the learning environment prepared to achieve the learning outcomes, and the authenticity of the assessments are crucial in ILE implementation (Thorburn and Collins, 2006). As a conclusion, ILE method would enable students’ workload to be lessened as they carry out tasks in groups, across subjects and finally assessed collectively by related content lecturers.


  • To share the challenges of isolated T&L and its impacts on students’ well-being
  • To share the ILE approach in engineering and non-engineering environments
  • To share the framework of critical factors for ILE
  • To share the success stories of ILE in the Malaysian polytechnic system